Thursday, March 7, 2019

Two studies of coconut oil for treating Lyme disease

Here are two studies about coconut oil (and coconut derivatives) for treatment of Lyme disease. 

 2017 Sep;123(3):637-650. doi: 10.1111/jam.13523. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of Borrelia sp.



Borrelia sp., a causative pathogenic factor of Lyme disease (LD), has become a major public health threat. Current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. Naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared with the individual components may serve as a resource for the development of novel approaches to combat both active and latent forms of Borrelia sp.


Using checkerboard assay, we investigated the anti-borreliae reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against two species of Borrelia selected as prevalent causes of LD in the United States and Europe. 
We tested 28 combinations of phytochemicals such as polyphenols (baicalein, luteolin, rosmarinic acids), fatty acids (monolaurin, cis-2-decenoic acid) and micronutrients (ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol and iodine). The results showed that the combinations of baicalein with luteolin as well as monolaurin with cis-2-decenoic acid expressed synergistic anti-spirochetal effects. 
Moreover, baicalein and luteolin, when combined with rosmarinic acid or iodine, produced additive bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against typical corkscrew motile spirochaetes and persistent knob/round-shaped forms, respectively. An additive anti-biofilm effect was noticed between baicalein with luteolin and monolaurin with cis-2-decenoic acid. 
Finally, application of the combination of baicalein with luteolin increased cytoplasmic permeability of Borrelia sp. but did not cause DNA damage.


These results show that a specific combination of flavones might play a supporting role in combating Borrelia sp. through either synergistic or additive anti-borreliae effects.


Presented here in vitro results might help advancing our knowledge and improving the approach to target Borrelia sp.
© 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Borrelia sp.; biofilm; micronutrients; phytochemicals; reciprocal cooperation
[Indexed for MEDLINE] 


 2016 Jul 22;12(9):1093-103. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.16060. eCollection 2016.

Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

Author information

Dr. Rath Research Institute BV, Santa Clara, California 95050, USA.


Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. 
Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. 
Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. 
Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. 
This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria.


Borrelia sp.; biofilm; cysts; doxycycline.; phytochemicals; spirochetes
[Indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free PMC Article


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