Friday, September 4, 2015

Alan MacDonald continues work on hypothesis that Lyme underlies Alzheikmer'

(I reformatted the text in legendary Lyme researcher Dr MacDonald's email from Aug 27 so that it is easier to read. I decreased the font size and removed many hard carriage returns. I hope I didn't make any errors by losing some text or making mistakes in assuming groups of sentences that go together.)


Dear Peter,

You should be aware of my Recent posting of Image data on the F1000 research Website. PDF attachment below.

I am aware of Dr. Miklossy's very important Research which dates from year 1993.

My Three papers: all from the decade of the 1980's...

1.)  1986- JAMA- Borrelia in the Brains of Patients dying with Dementia demonstrated:
        1. Pure cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi from two patients - Confirmed with immunoreactivity + for H5332 ( OSP A- burgdorferi)  H9724 ( Flagellin antibody for both burgdorferi group For Borrelia miyamotoi group and for Relapsing Fever group.
 
2.)  My paper in 1987 in Human Pathology , "Concurrent Neocortical Borreliosis and Alzheimer's Disease"
        Case report -1 patient- Alzheimer's confirmed by strict neuropath outside consultation { Armed Forces Institute of Pathology [AFIP]}. This case was Positive by brain culture for pure growth of Borrelia Burgd.  Imprint cytology and tissue sections were positive for Borrelia. burgd with Monoclonal Antibody H5332

3.)  Year 1988- " Concurrent Neocortical Borreliosis - a case demonstrating a Cystic Spirochetal form"
       {First report in the world of a Borrelia Cystic Form.} Cystic form was positive for Monoclonal Antibody H5332. Cystic borrelia was embedded inside of an Alzheimer Plaque in autopsy Brain.


I take the time to recall historical chronologies in the Discoveries linking deep Brain Chronic Borrelia infection Proven by Positive Borrelia pure cultures of Autopsy Brains performed by me prior to year 1988.

Dr. Miklossy's very important works are extremely important, and her research now favors Oral Spirochetes as a more common cause of Alzheimer's neurospirochetosis. Oral spirochetes are much more fastidious, and nearly impossible to grow from Tissues with Chronic Treponemal infections,

I continue my research on Borreliastrain causes of Alzheimer's neurospirochetosis.  (Most recently adding 6 cases of Doubleinfection ( Burgdorferi + Miyamotoi) in Autopsy Alzheimer's brain tissues.

Oral spirochetes may include several species of Treponeme family of spirochetes. These species are more difficult to culture in the laboratory, and do not at present have the Monoclonal antibody reagents to bind to them, as do Burgdorferi Borrelia.

I am now relying on DNA Probes to bind to the DNA of Spirochetal pathogens. This is because, the imaging of Borreliawith FISH hybridization, does not rely on Antibody binding to the borreliaspirochetes- [ especially important today because there are no commercially available Miyamotoi borreliaantibodies for sale.}

I hope that you derive some useful information from my input. Please see the attachment below. The F1000 website will have additional information provided by me in 3 days. A doi number will appear with the F1000 final posting of my Poster. I will follow up with a formal manuscript providing much more detail about the Research Protocol.

All good Wishes to you,
Alan

Monday, August 31, 2015

All about Bacteria

http://www.cronodon.com/sitebuilder/images/Spirochaete_1.jpgHere's an educational site that a member of one of our Lyme support groups found. If you are curious about bacteria and how they work, what they do, and the different classes of bacteria, you may want to read or at least scan this. There are lots of interesting drawings and photos of bacteria, including corkscrew-type (spirochete), such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary cause of Lyme disease.

Click this link to read more:  http://cronodon.com/BioTech/Bacteria.html

-Bob

Sunday, August 30, 2015

Lyme Disease May Linger for 1 in 5 Because of "Persisters" - Scientific American

This is big! We are gaining ground here. A new article in Scientific American explaining a possible cause of chronic Lyme disease could be a breakthrough in the effort to explain long-term post-treatment disability. It could certainly have ramifications in terms of increased private insurance coverage, qualifying for SSDI, and perhaps development of better diagnosis and treatment methods. 

Note that this study was done in-vitro (in the laboratory) not in-vivo (in the body). It will need to be replicated in the human body after the bacteria have invaded and compromised the immune system. However, this current new study is still an important finding, and the fact that it is appearing in well-respected and widely-read journal is significant.

The last couple of months have marked a real turnaround in media coverage and scientific findings about Lyme disease and tickborne infections. I've been following the news about Lyme for almost a decade. I do think we are reaching critical mass. Please send this link around. 

-Bob

Lyme Disease May Linger for 1 in 5 Because of "Persisters"

A new theory about long-lasting Lyme disease symptoms suggests treatment options


Lyme disease is a truly intractable puzzle. Scientists used to consider the tick-borne infection easy to conquer: patients, diagnosed by their bull's-eye rash, could be cured with a weeks-long course of antibiotics. But in recent decades the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has realized that up to one in five Lyme patients exhibits persistent debilitating symptoms such as fatigue and pain, known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, and no one understands why. The problem is growing. The incidence of Lyme in the U.S. has increased by about 70 percent over the past decade. Today experts estimate that at least 300,000 people in the U.S. are infected every year; in areas in the Northeast, more than half of adult black-legged ticks carry the Lyme bacterial spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Although the issue is far from settled, new research lends support to the controversial notion that the disease lingers because these bacteria evade antibiotics—and that timing drug treatments differently could eliminate some persistent infections.
These ideas stem from the observation of a few rogue bacterial cells. Kim Lewis, director of the antimicrobial discovery center at Northeastern University, and his colleagues grew B. burgdorferi in the laboratory, treated them with various antibiotics and found that whereas most of the bacteria died within the first day, a small percentage—called persister cells—managed to survive the drug onslaught. Scientists first discovered persister cells in 1944 in Staphylococcus aureus, the agent of staph infections, and Lewis and others have observed them in other species of bacteria, too—but the observations that B. burgdorferi also form persisters is new.
"These are some of the most robust persisters we've seen," says Lewis, whose results were published online in May inAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. "Over days, in the presence of antibiotic, their numbers don't decline." Researchers at Johns Hopkins University similarly identified B. burgdorferi persister cells this past spring...

Read the rest of the story:






A colorized micrograph of a black-legged tick, which can carry up to five diseases.

GETTY IMAGES

EMF Safety FAQ's - edited

(Sorry. I posted this yesterday, seriously unedited. So much for dictating a blog post into an iPhone while lying in bed with a backache eand expecting it to be somewhere close to publishable. It should read better now, though not Pulitzer material.)

Many people worry about electromagnetic radiation or electromagnetic frequencies (EMF). This is especially true of people who have chronic illness, as many of us have tried conventional cures through the medical establishment and yet we and our doctors have come up empty-handed, continuing to suffer. and continue to suffer. It's logical that we then begin to look elsewhere for potential causes or contributing factors at least, factors that, by themselves, may not pose a hazard but acting in concert with one another can push someone over the edge, if you will, into a state of significantly poor health. We may be coasting along just OK, well enough, and as well as most of the people around us who complain to about feeling mediocre. We begin to take that as the normal operating state of the average 21st-Century human. We all do this. We look around and talk to our friends and ask them how they're doing and we compare our feeling of health (or lack thereof) to theirs, and assume this is the human condition. Societal and medical commentators tell us we're all doing too much, we're all overtired, we eat poorly, we've overweight and undernourished. Even if we feel lousy, we might even take pride in the fact that we work too hard. That's a particularly American boast. "Sorry I haven't called you, I've been so busy…" The Protestant work ethic is hard to ignore.

When we come down with some kind of a chronic illness and our first line of attack, whatever it is, (such as a short course of antibiotics, a few days in bed or a vacation) doesn't bring us back to our previous state of health we may go through with a brief fit of anxiety and blame the doctor. After that, though, the time comes when we realize we're on our own and we better start looking around. We read some websites like Wrong Diagnosis or Dr. so-and-so (for example dr. Weil or Dr. Mercola) and start doing some medical self-education. You come across a lot of ideas that sound weird, strange and unbelievable. Some of them are. There is a huge sea of medical misinformation out there along with perhaps equal amounts of truth. Over time, with some diligence we may learn how to tease apart the wheat from the chaff.

For many people, cruising the Web may be the first time that they've heard how much diet affects health, for example. Or that we don't sleep enough on average to stay healthy. Or, that amalgam fillings in teeth have mercury in them which is highly toxic and maybe should be removed. Or, that a sedentary lifestyle gives rise to heart disease, or eating high-glycemic foods can lead to diabetes. The list goes on.

After doing a bit of study, it's not uncommon to become a tad paranoid, if you will (although that is an psychological term with a specific meaning but I use it colloquially here) about the food industry, the pharmaceutical industry, the American Medical Association, the Centers for Disease Control, the Federal Communications Commission and more.) Suddenly, the average consumer who used to trust the family doctor is at a loss as to why they or their loved one is not getting better after treatment by their doctor or local hospital, clinic, etc. 

Once the search for regaining one's health begins, an area of discussion that typically arises is that of the dreaded EMFs (electromagnetic fields). I say dreaded only because opinions, debate and discussion about things that are invisible in the environment seem to capture the attention of those with great imaginations. Discussing EMFs can be a bit like talking about spirits or astrology or chemtrails. (Try googling chemtrails and you're in for some interesting reading.)

Lest you think I'm making taking sides already, I'm not. I'm just pointing out that we chronic disease patients become desperate and thus willing to suspend disbelief perhaps a bit too easily, because we are looking for relief. We're willing to try unconventional avenues of treatment and will consider modifying our lives (and even our worldviews) if we have to, in order to regain our health.

We even start making deals with God in the middle of our sleepless nights. "Dear God, OK, yeah, It' me. Yeah, I know. I never pray, so why am I starting now? Looks kinda suspicious. Well, I am in terrible, freaking pain that I can't make go away. I've lost my mental capacities that made it possible for me to earn a living. I'm annoying and rageful towards my friends. My spouse left me and took the kids, and I can't pay the rent much less my medical bills. So, I surrender. Hey, I'll even go to church…"

But, as the saying goes, God helps those who help themselves. That aphorism can be interpreted many different ways, but I'll just say it's one of those crossroads that many diagnosed with Lyme disease get to. Not that we have a corner (pun not intended) on the suffering market, but there is a moment of recognition and of taking stock when we realize that you either get back in the saddle and start self-advocating and doing some research, or you just sit down and wait to die. In my life there is a fair bit of both, sort of oscillating between the two, with a smattering of 'ho, hum, life goes on' tossed in for good measure.

Over time, after the shock of diagnosis settles down and we start the long march back to health (we hope) many of us become medical sleuths out of necessity. We also become willing to think 'outside the box.' That doesn't mean logic is thrown to the wind but I can say that without a doubt, I've tried modalities of healing that I normally would not have bothered with in the past. Biophoton, frequency specific microcurrent, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, hands on healers, acupuncture, Chinese herbs, even Big Pharma intravenous drugs through central lines that go right into my heart.

We start reading about nutrition. As I mentioned above, we begin to learn about the serious consequences of food choices, where we live, exposure to chemicals, the dental fillings in our mouths, relationship issues, traumatic experiences that may need to be revisited and processed. We read about the water we drink, the local air quality, allergies, leaky-gut syndrome, MTHFR gene mutations, methylation cycles, and so much more.

So for the last few days because my doctor brought it up, I'm once again researching EMFs. I actually have researched this before and written about it in a computer industry magazine, PC WEEK, many years ago, back when I was a professional journalist. So, it has been interesting revisiting the topic.

As I began re-researching this topic, I came across this link to the official government stance on the situation with EMFs and human health. I'll leave it at that for the time being. It's a long article but I found it useful which is why am posting it. If you are concerned (and/or confused) about EMFs and wonder what, when, how, and who, and you at least want to know the basics so you can have a reasonably-educated discussion with someone about them, this is a good place to start.

http://transition.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety/rf-faqs.html

-Bob

Saturday, August 29, 2015

Ouch! Volunteers Get Tick Bites for Science

We all know that some ticks bite, but just how eager certain species are to feed on humans, and how quickly people react to their bites, is less clear in some cases. A new study attempted to answer these questions for the lone star tick, by having the bugs feed on the arms of volunteers.

Lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) are common in the Southern United States, although they are also found in the Eastern and South-Central U.S., and they are known to bite people. But until now, no study had examined their bites in a laboratory setting, where researchers can be sure that the bites came from a lone star tick, and can control how long the ticks feed, said study researcher Jerome Goddard, an entomologist at Mississippi State University.

An image of ticks inside a bottle cap that was attached to volunteers' arms



In the new study, 10 people — including Goddard and his wife — volunteered to let the ticks feed on them for 15 ....

Read the rest of the article:

More ticks carrying babesiosis parasite, raising risk of serious illness

Published August 28. 2015 7:11PM
Updated August 29. 2015 1:06PM

By Judy Benson


Before last month, 73-year-old Albert Patalano had never heard of babesiosis.

Now, he's eager to let others know about this dangerous tick-borne illness — not as common as Lyme disease, but potentially far more serious.

"People should be aware," the Waterford resident said Friday, now well on his way to full recovery after a near-fatal bout with the infection that began in mid-July.

Randall Nelson, chief epidemiologist for the state Department of Public Health, noted that while the number of babesiosis cases statewide has fluctuated from year to year, the decadelong trend shows an increase.

In 2013, there were 248 cases reported, and 170 last year.

The majority of cases, he noted, are in New London County, although there have been growing numbers in other parts of the state, as well.

The number of cases thus far in 2015 is not yet available.

"We have seen a geographic spread, as well as an increase in overall transmission," Nelson said Friday.

Kirby Stafford, chief entomologist with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, said it appears that a greater percentage of black-legged ticks, the same type that carry Lyme disease bacterium, are carrying babesia microti, the microscopic parasite that causes babesiosis.

The experiment station's most recent results show about 13 percent of ticks tested carry babesia, said Goudarz Molaei, research scientist there.

Results from an earlier batch of tests this year showed 3.6 percent of ticks statewide, and about 6 percent in New London County, carried the parasite.

Before this year, the experiment station's tick testing program only tested for Lyme bacterium, so "we have no baseline," Stafford noted.

It was expanded this year to include Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes anaplasmosis — also called ehrlichia — and babesia.

Of the three infections, babesiosis (pronounced bab-EE-zee-o-sis) is potentially the most serious.

"Lyme is not a fatal disease, but babesiosis can kill you," Stafford said Thursday.

On July 12, Patalano was feeling feverish and went to his regular primary care doctor. Though he had no visible marks from a tick bite, the doctor tested him for Lyme disease.

Before he heard back about the results, however, his symptoms worsened, so his wife, Janet, took him to the emergency department at Lawrence + Memorial Hospital in New London.

There, doctors had his blood checked for both for Lyme and babesiosis. It turns out he was infected with both the Lyme disease bacterium and the protozoa that causes babesiosis.

"I don't know how I got the tick bite," Patalano said. "I had no marks. But the next thing I know, they were helicoptering me to Yale-New Haven Hospital."

Patalano said he lost consciousness for three days, and when he woke up at Yale he found he had been intubated and put on a ventilator.


After two weeks at Yale, where his treatment included intravenous antibiotics, he was discharged to a rehabilitation facility, where he spent the next week and a half before returning home.

"My kidneys had started to fail," he recalled.

"I had to learn how to walk again," he said, "I'm walking well now."

Dr. Deirdre Cronin, emergency department physician at L+M, said she and other doctors there are routinely testing for babesiosis as well as Lyme disease whenever they suspect a patient has a tick-borne illness.

There's definitely been an increase (in babesiosis cases) over the last five years," she said. "It can be quite severe, especially in people who are immune-compromised or don't have a spleen."

Symptoms can range from mild-to-moderate fatigue, fever and overall not feeling well, to people "saying they feel awful, like they've been hit by a truck," she said.

The parasite infects red blood cells, sometimes causing severe anemia.

"It can cause a lot of destruction in a hurry," said Nelson, the state epidemiologist.

Most people, Cronin said, don't have to be hospitalized, recovering after a few weeks on antibiotics and other medications, usually some combination of quinine, clindamycin, atovaquone and azithromycin.

Cronin noted that doxycycline, the antibiotic usually prescribed for Lyme and ehrlichia, does not combat the babesiosis bug.

"This is an intracellular parasite, like the one that causes malaria," she said. "It's New England's version of malaria."

She advised patients being tested for Lyme disease to ask their doctors to also test them for babesiosis.

"Bringing it up to their physician is a good idea," she said. "It is diagnosed by a simple blood test."

Dr. Paqui Motyl, medical director of urgent care for The William W. Backus Hospital, said she and other doctors are testing for babesiosis more often.

"Especially when I see a patient coming in with cyclical drenching sweats," she said, noting that that is also a telltale symptom of malaria.

She also orders tests for babesiosis whenever a patient has anemia.

She noted that the infection is most dangerous for people over 50, those without spleens or who have had cancer treatments or are taking other medications that suppress their immune systems.

"It's a good thing to be screened for it," she said.

Stafford said the main reservoir of the parasite is white-footed mice. A tick bites an infected mouse, then bites a human and transmits it to the person.

Nelson said the growing risk of getting babesiosis is another reason people should take precautions such as using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing when outdoors.

"The bottom line from a public health perspective is that we have to prevent tick bites the best we can," he said.

Source:

Thursday, August 27, 2015

Scientific evidence that Alzheimer's results from brain infection

There is scientific evidence that cases of Alzheimer's which are not genetically determined are caused by bacterial infection of the brain.  This comes from the neurologist J. Miklossy, and you may wish to read this brief summary before looking at the article itself (a link to the article is provided farther down in this message):

1. An average of 90% of autopsied Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient brains are found to be infected with pathogenic spirochetal bacteria. Lyme bacteria are found in 25% (this is 13 times higher than in the control population) of autopsied Alzheimer's brains. The mouth is another source of pathogenic spriochetes, and they can migrate from that location to the brain. Such bacteria are found in 93.7% of autopsied AD brains, but are found in only 33.3% of non-AD brains.  These percentages produce a statistically significant difference between the AD and normal populations.  

2. Lyme disease and syphilis are both caused by spirochetal (motile cork screw shaped) bacteria.

3. Syphilis is known to cause dementia. Also, Lyme disease (an infection by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted to humans by tick bite) is known to be capable of causing severe cognitive impairment.

4. The bacterial infection described above is co-located with the Alzheimer's plaques.

5. The A-Beta protein which accumulates in Alzheimer's brains is an anti-microbial protein (i.e. it can kill bacteria). This (along with #4 above) suggests that its proliferation may be a physiological  response to infection.

6. When mammalian neural cells are cultured with added Lyme bacteria, the characteristic pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (i.e plaque build-up, fibrils, etc.) are found to occur.

(Source for the above: Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria. Miklossy J. Journal of  Neuroinflammation. 2011; 8: 90. Published online 2011 August 4. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-90 PMCID: PMC3171359)

There are two dramatic bar charts from the article comparing the incidence of bacterial infection between the AD and non-AD subjects:  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3171359/figure/F1/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3171359/figure/F2/

The entire article can be found at:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21816039

One final resource comes from  the American pathologist Dr. Alan MacDonald, who discovered Lyme bacteria in the brains of Alzheimer patients, and has created 3 video presentations (total viewing time is about 80 minutes):
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8tESJVvM88 (Preview)(Preview)  (Preview)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RATCS-3v9Q
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEjNMlNM3l8 (Preview)(Preview) (Preview)

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Sexual transmission of Lyme disease - latest study

At our latest Lyme support meetings, people brought up the question of whether sexual transmission of Lyme disease between humans was a known fact or not. The discussion was limited to Bb (Borrelia), not the many coinfections that often accompany Borrelia. I received notice of this publication today. This is a site that invites papers to be reviewed by peers. It's educational to see how the process works. There are peer reviewers and 'referees' who will moderate if necessary, should the peer reviews appear biased or otherwise out of line. In any case, there are many reference citations here (at the bottom of the web page if you click through) and there is more discussion of the study left as comments. You can see the number of peer reviews, how many other scientists agree / approve the study and findings, and how many opposed, etc. This paper is the combined work of Raphael Stricker and Eva Sapi, et al. Most long-term Lyme disease patients have heard these names. 

-Bob

Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions 

Abstract

Background: Recent reports indicate that more than 300,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed yearly in the USA. Preliminary clinical, epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) could be transferred from person to person via intimate human contact without a tick vector. Failure to detect viable Borrelia spirochetes in vaginal and seminal secretions would argue against this hypothesis.
Methods: Patients with and without a history of Lyme disease were selected for the study after informed consent was obtained. Serological testing for Bb was performed on all subjects. Semen or vaginal secretions were inoculated into BSK-H medium and cultured for four weeks. Examination of genital cultures and culture concentrates for the presence of spirochetes was performed using light and darkfield microscopy, and spirochete concentrates were subjected to Dieterle silver staining, anti-Bb immunohistochemical staining, molecular hybridization and PCR analysis for further characterization. Immunohistochemical and molecular testing was performed in three independent laboratories in a blinded fashion. Positive and negative controls were included in all experiments.

Results: Control subjects who were asymptomatic and seronegative for Bb had no detectable spirochetes in genital secretions by PCR analysis. In contrast, spirochetes were observed in cultures of genital secretions from 11 of 13 subjects diagnosed with Lyme disease, and motile spirochetes were detected in genital culture concentrates from 12 of 13 Lyme disease patients using light and darkfield microscopy. Morphological features of spirochetes were confirmed by Dieterle silver staining and immunohistochemical staining of culture concentrates. Molecular hybridization and PCR testing confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from semen and vaginal secretions were strains of Borrelia, and all cultures were negative for treponemal spirochetes. PCR sequencing of cultured spirochetes from three couples having unprotected sex indicated that two couples had identical strains of Bb sensu stricto in their semen and vaginal secretions, while the third couple had identical strains of B. hermsii detected in their genital secretions.
Conclusions: The culture of viable Borrelia spirochetes in genital secretions suggests that Lyme disease could be transmitted by intimate contact from person to person. Further studies are needed to evaluate this hypothesis.         

See the entire paper here:

Is Lyme disease sexually transmissable?

This question comes up regularly at Lyme support meetings and nobody ever seems to quite know the answer. As far as I am aware, the links here will take you to the current state of the art on this topic as of this writing which is August 26, 2015:

Here's the press release:
 
 
Here's the editorial:
 

Nine risk factors for Alzheimer's

Reprinted from a newsletter called:

Aging and Parkinson's and Me

Aging and Parkinson's and Me


Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:57 AM PDT
An article published online last week in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry describes nine risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The data from this study suggests that these nine factors contribute to two thirds of all AD cases worldwide.